Equipment Glossary Acknowledgements

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Section 1
Brewing Your First Beer With Malt Extract
1 A Crash Course in Brewing
2 Brewing Preparations
3 Malt Extract and Beer Kits
4 Water for Extract Brewing
5 Hops
6 Yeast
7 Boiling and Cooling
8 Fermentation
9 Fermenting Your First Beer
10 What is Different for Brewing Lager Beer?
11 Priming and Bottling
Section 2
Brewing Your First Extract and Specialty Grain Beer
Section 3
Brewing Your First All-Grain Beer
Section 4
Formulating Recipes and Solutions


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Chapter 8 - Fermentation

8.1.1 Yeast Factors

The first step to achieving a good fermentation is to pitch enough yeast. The yeast can be grown via yeast starters or it can be harvested from previous fermentations. When yeast is harvested from a previous fermentation, it should be taken from the primary yeast cake and preferably from the upper layer of the cake or from the secondary. This yeast will have the optimum characteristics for re-pitching. In either case, you should target pitching at least 1/3 cup (75 ml) of yeast slurry to a typical 5 gallon batch of ale or 2/3 cup of slurry for lagers. For stronger beers, OG > 1.050, more yeast should be pitched to ensure optimum fermentations. For very strong beers like doppelbocks and barleywines, at least 1 cup of slurry should be pitched.

The yeast that is obtained from a healthy starter or recently from a prior fermentation will have good vitality and adapt readily to the new wort. With good levels of aeration and nutrients, the yeast will quickly multiply to the numbers necessary for an exemplary fermentation.

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Some Misconceptions
Factors for a Good Fermentation
Yeast Factors
Wort Factors
Temperature Factors
Re-defining Fermentation
Lagtime or Adaptation Phase
Primary or Attenuative Phase
Secondary or Conditioning Phase
Conditioning Processes
Using Secondary Fermentors
Secondary Fermentor vs. Bottle Conditioning
Real Beer Page

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Appendix A - Using Hydrometers
Appendix B - Brewing Metallurgy
Appendix C - Chillers
Appendix D - Building a Mash/Lauter Tun
Appendix E - Metric Conversions
Appendix F - Recommended Reading

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All material copyright 1999, John Palmer