Equipment Glossary Acknowledgements


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Introduction
Section 1
Brewing Your First Beer With Malt Extract
Section 2
Brewing Your First Extract and Specialty Grain Beer
Section 3
Brewing Your First All-Grain Beer
Section 4
Formulating Recipes and Solutions
19 Some of My Favorite Beer Styles and Recipes
20 Experiment!
21 Is My Beer Ruined?

 

 

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Chapter 19 - Some of My Favorite Beer Styles and Recipes

19.3 Ale Styles

Weizen
You may not realize it, but wheat beer used to be one of the most popular styles in America a century ago. Wheat was abundant and after a hot hard day working in the fields, a light, tart wheat beer is very refreshing. The most popular style of wheat beer at the time was patterned after the tart Berliner Weiss beers of Germany. Berliner Weiss is brewed using three parts wheat malt to one part barley malt and fermented with a combination of ale yeast and lactic acid bacteria. After fermentation it is dosed with a substantial quantity of young, fermenting beer (krausened), and bottled. American weissbier used similar yeast cultures, but the common practice was to use unmalted wheat in the form of grits; only about 30% of the grist was wheat. The excess of proteins in wheat cause most wheat beers to be hazy, if not downright cloudy. Hefeweizens go a step further with the beer being cloudy with suspended yeast. The thought of drinking that much yeast is appalling in a pale ale, but it really works with hefeweizens; they are quite tasty. Hefeweizen is not tart like Berliner Weiss because it are not fermented with lactic acid cultures.

Wheat beer became extinct with Prohibition in the United States, and has only been revived in the last decade. Today's American wheat beer is loosely modeled after weizen but are made with a standard, flocculant ale yeast and not the specialized German weizenbier yeasts with their spicy, clove-like character. The Noble-type hops are most appropriate for the light body and spicy character of wheats. Wheat beers are usually light, but dunkles (darks), bocks (strong) and dunkles weizenbock are common variations. Spices are often used with wheat beers; Belgian Wit uses Coriander and dried Curacua orange peel with some lactic acid sourness to produce a truly unique beer.

OG: 1.035 - 1.045
FG: 1.005 - 1.010
20 - 30 IBUs
Commercial example: Sierra Nevada Wheat


Three Weisse Guys - American Wheat Beer
MaltsGravity Contribution

6 lbs. of Wheat Malt Extract
(60% Wheat, 40% Barley)

72

BG for 3 Gallons

1.072

OG for 5 Gallons

1.043

HopsIBU Contribution

1.5 oz Liberty (4%) at 60 minutes
1 oz Liberty (4%) at 30 minutes

17
9

Total IBUs

26

Yeast Fermentation Schedule

American Ale

10 days at 65 F in Primary Fermenter.

Options

All-Extract

(same)

All-Grain

5 lbs. of 2 Row Base Malt
3 lbs. of (un)Malted Wheat

Mash Schedule - Multi Rest Mash

Rest

Temperature

Time

Beta Glucan
Protein Rest
Conversion Rest

110F
125F
152F

15 minutes
15 minutes
60 minutes

Pale Ales
There is a lot of variety in the Pale Ale family. Pale is a relative term and was originally applied as pale-as-compared-to-Stout. Pale ales can range from golden to deep amber, depending on the amount of Crystal malts used. Crystal malts are the defining ingredient to the malt character of a Pale ale, giving it a honey or caramel-like sweetness. The top fermenting ale yeast and warm fermentation temperature give pale ales a subtle fruitiness. Pale ales are best served cool, about 55 F, to allow the fruit and caramel notes to emerge.

There are several varieties of Pale Ale; more than I will attempt to cover here. I will provide a description and recipe for each of my favorite types.

English Special Bitter
There are several substyles of British pale ale, these include the mild, bitter, special bitter and India pale ale. These styles share many characteristics. All are brewed from water high in sulfates for a crisp hop finish to balance the ester and malt flavors. Many examples of the style have a hint of butterscotch from the presence of diacetyl. These beers usually have what is considered a low level of carbonation. Drinkers in the United States would probably describe them as flat. The beer is brewed to a low final gravity yielding a dry finish with only a low level of residual sweetness that does not mask the hop finish. In particular, the English Special Bitter is a marvelous beer. There is a supporting depth of malt flavor with fruity overtones that adds warmth, but the hop bitterness is the distinguishing characteristic of the flavor and lingers in the finish.

OG: 1.045 - 1.055
FG: 1.008 - 1.013
25 - 45 IBUs

Commercial Example: Young's Special Bitter


Lord Crouchback's Special Bitter
MaltsGravity Contribution

6 lbs. of Pale Malt Extract (syrup)
1/2 lb. of Crystal 60L Malt

73
2
BG for 3 Gallons1.075
OG for 5 Gallons 1.045
HopsIBU Contribution

1 oz of Northern Brewer (9%) at 60 minutes
3/4 oz of East Kent Goldings (5%) at 30
3/4 oz of East Kent Goldings (5%) at 15

25
8
5
Total IBUs38
YeastFermentation Schedule

Whitbread English Ale

Primary Ferment at 65F for 2 weeks.

Or 1 wk Primary and 2 wk Secondary.

Options

All-Extract

4 lbs. of Pale Malt LME
2 lbs. of Amber DME.

All-Grain

7 lbs. of British Pale Ale Malt
or 2 Row Base Malt
1/2 lb. of Crystal 60
or 1/4 each of Crystal 35 and Crystal 80

Mash Schedule - Single Temperature Infusion

Rest

Temperature

Time

Conversion

152F

60 minutes

India Pale Ale
This ale was originally just a stronger version of the common pale ale, but the style has evolved a bit to today's version, which does not use as much Crystal Malt. The IPA style arose from the months long sea journey to India, during which the beer conditioned with hops in the barrel. Extra hops were added to help prevent spoilage during the long voyage. This conditioning time mellowed the hop bitterness to a degree and imparted a wealth of hop aroma to the beer. Homebrewed IPA should also be given a long conditioning time either in the bottle or in a secondary fermentor. If a secondary fermentor is used the beer should be dry hopped with an ounce of British aroma hops like East Kent Goldings. Conditioning time should be 4 - 6 weeks depending on OG and IBU levels. Stronger = Longer.

OG: 1.055 - 1.065
FG: 1.010 - 1.015
50 - 80 IBUs

Commercial Example: Anchor Liberty Ale


Victory and Chaos India Pale Ale
MaltsGravity Contribution
8 lbs. of Pale Malt Extract (syrup)
1/2 lb. of Crystal 120L Malt
96
4
BG for 3 Gallons1.100
OG for 5 Gallons 1.062
HopsIBU Contribution

2 oz of Galena (11%) at 60 minutes
2 oz of East Kent Goldings (5%) at 15 min.
1 oz of East Kent Goldings (5%) at 5 min.

47
11
2

Total IBUs60
YeastFermentation Schedule

Whitbread English Ale

Primary Ferment at 65F for 2 weeks.
Or 1 wk Primary and 3 wk Secondary.

Options

All-Extract

7 lbs. of Pale Malt LME
2 lbs. of Amber DME

All-Grain

10 lbs. of British Pale Ale Malt
or 2 Row Base Malt
1/2 lb. of Crystal 120

Mash Schedule - Single Temperature Infusion

Rest

Temperature

Time

Conversion

152F

60 minutes

American Pale Ale
American pale ale is an adaptation of classic British pale ale. The American Ale yeast strain produces less esters than comparable ale yeasts, and thus American pale ale has a less fruity taste than its British counterpart. American pale ales vary in color from gold to dark amber and typically have a hint of sweet caramel from the use of crystal malt that does not mask the hop finish. With the resurgence of interest in ales in the United States, American pale ale evolved from a renewed interest in American hop varieties and a higher level of bitterness as microbreweries experimented with craft brewing. The Cascade hop has become a staple of American microbrewing and is the signature hop for American pale ales. It has a distinctive citrusy aroma compared to European hops and has enabled American pale ale to stand shoulder to shoulder with other classic beer styles.

OG: 1.045 - 1.055
FG: 1.008 - 1.013
25 - 45 IBUs

Commercial Example: Sierra Nevada Pale Ale


Lady Liberty Ale - American Pale Ale
MaltsGravity Contribution

6 lbs. of Pale Malt Extract (syrup)
1/2 lb. of Crystal 60L Malt

72
3

BG for 3 Gallons

1.075

OG for 5 Gallons

1.045

HopsIBU Contribution

3/4 oz of Northern Brewer (9%) at 60 min.
3/4 oz of Cascade (7%) at 30 minutes
3/4 oz of Cascade (7%) at 15 minutes

19
11
7

Total IBUs37
YeastFermentation Schedule

American Ale(liquid)

Primary Ferment at 65F for 2 weeks.
Or 1 wk Primary and 2 wk Secondary.

Options
All-Extract

4 lbs. of Pale Malt LME, 2 lbs. of Amber DME.

All-Grain

7 lbs. of 2 Row Base Malt
or British Pale Ale Malt
1/2 lb. of Crystal 60
or 1/4 each of Crystal 35 and Crystal 80

Mash Schedule - Single Temperature Infusion

Rest

Temperature

Time

Conversion

154F

60

Brown Ales
There are several kinds of brown ale, but we will only describe three variations: sweet, nutty, and hoppy. The sweet brown ales of England are made with a lot of Crystal malt and a low hopping rate. The nutty brown ales, also of England, are made with Crystal malt plus a percentage of toasted malts (e.g. Biscuit or Victory) but still a low hopping rate. The hoppy brown ales, which can be nutty also, arose from the US homebrew scene when hop-crazy homebrewers decided that most brown ales were just too wimpy. Beauty is on the palate of the beholder, I suppose. Brown Ales as a class have grown to bridge the gap between Pale Ales and Porters. I will present a basic American brown ale and include a nutty option. Contrary to popular myth there are no nuts or nut extracts in classic brown ales; toasted malts give the beer a nut-like flavor and nut brown color.

OG: 1.045 - 1.055
FG: 1.008 - 1.013
25 - 45 IBUs

Commercial Example: Newcastle Brown Ale, Pete's Wicked Ale, Samuel Smith's Nut Brown Ale


Tittabawasee Brown Ale
MaltsGravity Contribution

6 lbs. of Pale DME
1 lb. of Crystal 60L Malt
1/4 lb. of Chocolate Malt

80
3
1

BG for 3 Gallons

1.084

OG for 5 Gallons

1.050

HopsIBU Contribution

3/4 oz of Nugget (10%) at 60 minutes
1 oz of Willamette (5%) at 30 minutes
1 oz of Willamette (5%) at 15 minutes

21
11
6

Total IBUs38
YeastFermentation Schedule

Cooper's Ale
or Yeast Lab Australian Ale

Primary Ferment at 65F for 2 weeks.
Or 1 wk Primary and 2 wk Secondary.

Options

All-Extract

4 lbs. of Pale Malt LME
2.5 lbs. of Amber DME
.5 lbs. of Dark DME

All-Grain

7.5 lbs. of 2 Row Base Malt
or British Pale Ale Malt
1 lb. of Crystal 60
1/4 lb. of Chocolate malt

Mash Schedule - Single Temperature Infusion

Rest

Temperature

Time

Conversion

154F

60

Porter
A porter is an ale with a dark color and very malty flavor with a bit of a roasted finish. A porter differs from a brown ale by being stronger, more full bodied and darker with more of a roasted malt finish, but less so than a stout. Porters should be fairly well attenuated (dry), though sweet porters are not uncommon. Compared to stout, a porter should be lighter in both body and color. When held up to the light, a porter should have a deep ruby red glow.

Historically, porters preceded stouts and had a much different character than today. This difference can be described as a tartness or sourness imparted by both the yeast and the malt. Porter used to be brewed and stored in wooden barrels that harbored a yeast called Brettanomyces which imparts a secondary fermentation characteristic commonly described as "horse sweat". Another one of those acquired tastes. The other dominant note was from the use of Brown Malt, which was used as the base malt. The beer was then aged for about 6 months before serving. The aging time was necessary for the rough flavors of the brown malt to mellow. My Santa Nevada Porter, an all-grain recipe listed at the end of the Porter section, uses brown malt and does indeed benefit from 4 months of conditioning time. What starts out as harshly bitter-malt beer turns into a sweeter, smooth elixir. It is a very good beer if you are careful to not to oxidize it during the brewing and let it age for several months before drinking.

OG: 1.048 - 1.060
FG: 1.008 - 1.013
25 - 45 IBUs

Commercial Example: Sierra Nevada Porter, Yuengling Porter.


Port O' Palmer - Porter
MaltsGravity Contribution

6 lbs. of Pale Malt Extract (syrup)
1/2 lb. of Chocolate Malt
1/2 lb. of Crystal 60L Malt
1/4 lb. of Black Patent Malt

72
3
3
1

BG for 3 Gallons

1.079

OG for 5 Gallons

1.048

HopsIBU Contribution

1 oz of Nugget (10%) at 60 minutes
3/4 oz of Willamette (5%) at 40 minutes
1/2 oz of Willamette (5%) at 20 minutes

26
9
4

Total IBUs39
YeastFermentation Schedule

American Ale(liquid)

Primary Ferment at 65F for 2 weeks.
Or 1 wk Primary and 2 wk Secondary.

Options

All-Extract

4 lbs. of Pale Malt LME
2 lbs. of Amber DME
1 lb. of Dark DME.

All-Grain

7.5 lbs. of 2 Row Base Malt
or British Pale Ale Malt
1/2 lb. of Chocolate Malt
1/2 lb. of Crystal 60L Malt
1/4 lb. of Black Patent Malt

Mash Schedule - Single Temperature Infusion

Rest

Temperature

Time

Conversion

154F

60

Santa Nevada Porter - (All-Grain Recipe)

MaltsGravity Contribution

8 lbs. of 2 Row Base Malt
1/2 lb. of Special B Malt
1 lb. of Crystal 80L Malt
1/2 lb. of Chocolate Malt
1 lb. of Brown Malt

40
2
4
2
4

BG for 6 Gallons

1.052

OG for 5 Gallons

1.062

HopsIBU Contribution

1 oz of Galena (11%) at 60 minutes
1/2 oz of East Kent Goldings (5%) at 40 min.
1/2 oz of East Kent Goldings (5%) at 20 min.

38
7
5

Total IBUs50
YeastFermentation Schedule

Irish Ale (liquid)

Primary Ferment at 65F for 2 weeks.
Or 1 wk Primary and 3 wk Secondary.
Allow to Bottle Condition at least 1 month.

Mash Schedule - Two Step Infusion

Rest

Temperature

Time

Beta Conversion
Alpha Conversion

145F
158F

30
30

With Porters and Stouts, English yeast strains are good choices for more of the tart character that is part of these styles. Any of the dry yeasts like Windsor would also be good.

Stout
Arguably one of the most popular styles among homebrewers, stouts vary a lot in flavor, degree of roastiness, and body. There are dry stouts, sweet stouts, export stouts, oatmeal stouts, coffee stouts and more besides. The one defining characteristic of a stout is the use of highly roasted malts and/or unmalted roast barley. The most popular, Guinness Extra Stout, is the defining example of Irish dry stout and uses only pale malt, unmalted roast barley and flaked barley; no crystal malt is used. English stouts tend to be of the sweet stout style and will include chocolate and crystal malts. Some English stouts do not use any black malt or roast barley at all. Export stouts are brewed to a very high gravity, 1.075 - 1.100 with a huge complexity of flavors, sweet and tarry, fruity and quite bitter. Oatmeal stouts are my favorite, being a sweet / Irish stout with the smooth silkiness of oatmeal added in. Coffee stouts are another homebrew favorite, the taste of coffee perfectly complements the roast character of a stout.

OG: 1.045 - 1.075
FG: 1.012 - 1.020
35 - 70 IBUs

Commercial Examples: Guinness Extra Stout, Murphy's Stout, Young's Oatmeal Stout


Mill Run Stout
MaltsGravity Contribution

6 lbs. of Pale DME
1/2 lb. of Crystal 60L Malt
1/2 lb. of Black Roast Barley

80
4
3

BG for 3 Gallons

1.087

OG for 5 Gallons

1.052

HopsIBU Contribution

1 oz of Galena (11%) at 60 minutes
1 oz of Chinook (11%) at 30 minutes

27
21

Total IBUs

48

YeastFermentation Schedule

Irish Ale
or British Ale

Primary Ferment at 65F for 2 weeks.
Or 1 wk Primary and 3 wk Secondary.

Options
All-Extract

6 lbs. of Dark DME

All-Grain

8 lbs. of 2 Row Base Malt
or British Pale Ale Malt,
1/2 lb. of Black Roast Barley
1/2 lb. of flaked barley
1/2 lb. of Crystal 60L Malt

Mash Schedule - Single Temperature Infusion

Rest

Temperature

Time

Conversion

154F

60 minutes

Oatmeal Stout: Oatmeal Stout Extract is now available from some of the larger mail-order homebrew suppliers. Use in place of the Dark DME. The all-grain brewer can add a pound of Instant Oats to the mash with a 20 minute Beta Glucan Rest at 110F to make lautering easier.

Coffee Stout: This is an easy variation to any Stout recipe. Simply add up to a quart of fresh, moderately-strong, drip-brewed coffee to the fermentor. If the coffee is boiled with the wort it degrades the aroma and flavor. (It's why coffee percolators quickly went out of style after Mr. Coffee came along.)

Barleywine
Barleywine is the drink of the gods, the intellectual ones anyway. Few beverages can equal the complexity of flavors that a properly aged barleywine has: malt, fruit, spice, and warmth from the high level of alcohol (9-14%). Barleywine has been around for several hundred years. It was known as Strong Ale in medieval times and was probably brewed long before the introduction of hops. Recipes for barleywines vary greatly, but can be loosely organized into 3 categories. There are strong barleywines with more emphasis on the malt and sweetness than on the hop character. There are more balanced strong barleywines which strive to keep the hop bitterness and flavor on equal footing with malt. Finally there are the lightweights of the barleywine world, often the ones that are most available commercially, that make use of various brewing sugars to lighten the body while keeping the alcohol content high. The hop levels are usually balanced in these lighter barleywines.

Barleywines tend to require the use of malt extracts to help achieve the high gravities that are their hallmark. Barleywines usually consist primarily of pale and crystal malts to avoid masking the flavor with roasted malts. The color of barleywine ranges from deep gold to ruby red. Wheat and rye malts are popular additions for the spiciness these malts provide, counterbalancing the heavy maltiness of the barley. A barleywine is meant to be sipped in front of the fire on a cold winter's night, providing the fuel for philosophical thoughts on science and the wonders of metallurgy.

OG: 1.090 - 1.130
FG: 1.015 - 1.035
100 - 150 IBUs


Fightin' Urak-Hai Barleywine

MaltsGravity Contribution

5 lbs. Wheat Malt Extract
8 lbs. Pale DME
1/2 lb. Special B Malt
1/2 lb. Chocolate Malt

45
80
2
2
BG for 4 Gallons1.129
OG for 5 Gallons 1.103
HopsIBU Contribution

3 oz Columbus (10%) for 60 minutes
3 oz Nugget (12%) for 30 minutes
1 oz Columbus (10%) for 15 minutes

51
47
8
Total IBUs106
YeastFermentation Schedule

American Ale
or English Ale

Pitch the entire dregs from a previous batch of beer, preferably from the Secondary Fermenter. Be sure to use blowoff tube in a 6.5 gal fermentor, this will be messy. 2 - 3 week Primary at 65F, 1 - 3 month secondary. Bottle and condition for an additional 3 months before drinking.

Options
All-Extract

Substitute 1.5 lbs. of Dark Malt Extract for specialty grains.

All-Grain

5 lbs. Wheat Malt
12 lbs. Pale Ale Malt
1/2 lb. Special B Malt
1/2 lb. Chocolate Malt

Mash Schedule - Multi Rest Mash
Rest

Temperature

Time

Protein Rest
Beta Conversion
Alpha Conversion

122F
140F
158F

20
30
30

Barleywines are meant to be consumed in small amounts so it best to use 12 oz or smaller bottles. The amount of priming sugar should be reduced to 1/2 - 2/3 cup per 5 gallons because the beer will continue to ferment for months in the bottle. The normal amount of priming sugar plus this residual fermentation would cause the bottles to overcarbonate.

Previous Page Next Page
Some of My Favorite Beer Styles and Recipes
19.0
A Question of Style
19.1
Ales vs. Lagers
19.2
Style Descriptions
19.3
Ale Styles
19.4
Lager Styles
Real Beer Page

Buy the print edition
Appendix A - Using Hydrometers
Appendix B - Brewing Metallurgy
Appendix C - Chillers
Appendix D - Building a Mash/Lauter Tun
Appendix E - Metric Conversions
Appendix F - Recommended Reading

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All material copyright 1999, John Palmer